Natural Plastics

News about the bioplastics industry

Wipak launches sustainable food packaging films using Cardia Biohybrid technology

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Wipak, a leading global supplier of quality packaging films, has released their new range of sustainable food packaging films using Cardia Biohybrid™ patented technology. Wipak  presented these novel films at the world's leading packaging trade fair, Interpack 2011, in Dusseldorf, Germany


"Assuming responsibility" - Wipak's motto for this year's exhibition says it all. "In view of rising costs for raw material and energy, affecting both retail, manufacturers and suppliers, efficient and sustainable packaging systems that are ideally adapted to the products are gaining more and more importance", emphasizes Rafael Kraft, European Sales & Marketing Director. "Our new range of sustainable food packaging films using Cardia BiohybridTM patented technology is an excellent example of our sustainability initiative and will be presented for the first time at Interpack 2011."



Wipak offers sustainable and efficient packaging solutions. In addition to food packaging films using Cardia BiohybridTM technology Wipak Group will present numerous new developments to demonstrate how the requirements for sustainable, economical and functional packaging solutions can be met.



Cardia BiohybridTM technology combines renewable thermoplastics with polyolefin material to reduce dependence on finite oil resources and to reduce carbon footprint. Cardia Managing Director, Dr Frank Glatz, said: "Growth for our business is fuelled by the global trend towards sustainable packaging. We are delighted to be collaborating with Wipak Group to offer the food and medical packaging industry a product that is environmentally responsible and meets the markets performance requirements.



"Our partnership with Wipak Group will enable their food packaging and medical packaging customers to purchase innovative film products with reduced dependence on finite oil resources and lower carbon footprint," said Frank Glatz.

Rafael Kraft emphasised Wipak Group's strategy on responsible products and packaging. "We are excited to work with Cardia Bioplastics. Our food packaging film products made from Cardia BiohybridTM resins meet the highest performance standards and will form an integral part of our responsible product offering," he said.



Cardia Bioplastics is benefiting from the trend towards sustainable packaging with products used in a broad range of packaging applications, including flexible film, injection moulding, blow moulding, foam, extrusion and coating applications. It gives customers the choice of using sustainable Cardia BiohybridTM technology (less oil, lower carbon foot print) or Cardia's internationally certified Compostable technology for their packaging or plastic products.



About Cardia Bioplastics
Cardia Bioplastics Limited (ASX CODE: CNN), through its 100% owned subsidiary Cardia Bioplastics Australia Pty Ltd, develops, manufactures and markets sustainable resins and finished products derived from renewable resources for the global packaging and plastic products industries. The company holds a strong patent portfolio and its growth is fuelled by the global trend towards sustainable packaging. Established in Australia in 2002 as Biograde, the company Headquarters and Global Applications Development Centre is in Melbourne, Australia. The Product Development Centre and manufacturing plant is in Nanjing, China. There are Cardia Bioplastics offices in the Americas, Europe, Malaysia and China, and a network of leading distributors across Australia, the Americas, Asia and Europe. Visit



About Wipak
As part of the Finland-based Wihuri Group the Wipak Group holds a leading rank in the development and manufacture of multilayer films and high-end packaging solutions in Europe. Our strength is based on linking our expertise in research and development with our group's production and sales capacities around the globe. This results in synergies at all levels. At its eleven European locations Wipak develops and manufactures high-quality films and packaging solutions for the food industry and the medical/healthcare sector. Visit



BIC® ecolutions™, BIC's first shaver with a bioplastic handle

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Today, BIC is launching BIC® ecolutions™, a triple-blade shaver delivering up to ten close, smooth, comfortable, and more environmentally friendly shaves*.

With a bioplastic handle, the result of five years of research, and 100% recycled cardboard packaging, BIC® ecolutions™ takes a step towards a cleaner environment.
BIC® ecolutions™ an environmentally friendly high-performance shaver at an affordable price. (suggested retail price: 3,15€ for four shavers).

Available in supermarkets.


In 1975, when Marcel Bich launched his first shaver, he had a specific goal in mind: to make shaving easy and affordable, without compromising quality. Shavers and packaging were designed to make them both as light as possible. His quest to strip away the superfluous was visionary. BIC this was just the start for BIC. Today's new challenge worldwide is to halt the consumption of non-renewable natural resources. Relying on more than half a century's specialist experience in the precision molding of plastic, BIC has been working for several years to develop the best alternative to petroleum-based plastics. The launch of the BIC® ecolutions™, in January 2009, represents the next step forward for BIC.





    Bioplastic handle
    Green colorants of vegetable origin
    Light packaging: maximum function, minimum size
    100% recycled cardboard
    Ink of vegetable origin



    BIC® ecolutions™, BIC's first shaver with a bioplastic handle, for more ecological, high-performance shave at a low price.

    What is bioplastic?
    Bioplastic is a product of a chemical process that changes glucose into plastic. Today, it is made of corn, a renewable resource, but BIC is already looking at potential materials for the future. Research is underway to produce the next generation of bioplastic, to be produced from the non-edible parts of plants and vegetables.



    Any changes in performance?
    No compromise on quality. BIC® ecolutions™ triple-blade technology provides a close and precise shave while an incorporated lubricating strip with aloe and vitamin E provides optimal comfort. The BIC® ecolutions™ shaver is produced in our European ISO 14001 certified BIC factory.


    What about packaging?
    BIC® ecolutions™ packaging has been reduced to its minimum size. It is made from 100% recycled cardboard and bio inks from vegetable based pigments.



    How about price?
    Consumers usually perceive green products as expensive. However, with a suggested retail price of 3,15 € per pack of four shavers, BIC® ecolutions™ remains affordable for everyone.



    This is a first step. Research at BIC continues...

    *The carbon footprint of the BIC® ecolutionsTM shaver is reduced by 27 percent (from 59 to 43g CO2 - eq) compared to the BIC® 3 Sensitive shaver (Source:EVEA)



    PepsiCo Rolls Out Eco-Friendly Recyclable and Compostable Cups

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    PepsiCo (NYSE: PEP) announced today that it has begun offering five options of eco-friendly, recyclable and compostable cups to Foodservice customers in the United States through company-owned and independent bottler distribution systems.



    The new offerings consist of fully recyclable clear plastic cups, including an rPET cup containing 20 percent post-consumer recycled content, as well as compostable paper cups and wax cups made with plant-based materials sourced from sustainably managed forests. The fountain cup portfolio mix empowers Foodservice customers – such as restaurants, stadiums and theme parks, and colleges and universities – to select the right green cup options based on locally available recycling and composting disposal facilities.






    The Pepsi-branded cups display engaging green imagery and clearly communicate the environmental benefit, stating "Wow, Our Cups are Fully Recyclable," or a similar message respective to the materials used. The cups also encourage consumers to for information on how to properly dispose of materials in their local communities.



    "The new cups are an advancement in technology, but also in the way we communicate," said Margery Schelling, CMO PepsiCo Foodservice. "Customers increasingly are asking for environmental products that match changing needs, expectations and lifestyles. We want consumers to enjoy their favorite fountain beverages and feel good about the environmental impact of their purchases."



    "Earth911 is pleased to see PepsiCo take a leadership role in providing consumers with accessible and actionable recycling information," said Earth911 President Corey Lambrecht. "It's no longer enough to tell people to simply recycle - you have to show them how and where."



    PepsiCo introduced the green cups in response to growing demand for eco-friendly beverage packaging, particularly among college and university students. Research shows that 94 percent of consumers are concerned about the environmental effects of beverage packaging(1), and 60 percent of Millennials and Gen-Xers would be willing to pay slightly more for recycled beverage packaging that's better for the environment(2).



    The roll out of eco-friendly cups is aligned with PepsiCo's global environmental goals and commitments, among them to reduce packaging waste, use rPET and renewable sources in packaging, and increase the national beverage container recycling rate. Specific examples of PepsiCo innovations with respect to beverage packaging include:

    • The development of the world's first fully recyclable "green" bottle made from bio-based raw materials.
    • The Naked Juice reNEWabottle™ made from 100 percent post-consumer recycled plastic.
    • The Aquafina Eco-Fina bottle, the lightest bottle of its size among U.S. bottled water brands.
    • The Dream Machine recycling initiative, which provides greater access across America to on-the-go recycling receptacles.

    PepsiCo will continue to explore the use of innovative, sustainable packaging solutions that meet quality standards and address consumer needs. Pepsi beverage bottles and cans are already 100 percent recyclable and among the most recycled consumer packaging in the United States.

    (1) study, August 2010.

    (2) Mintel Beverage Packaging Trends, February 2010.



    For more information, please visit


    Download high-resolution images and read a blog post with video showcasing the new, eco-friendly Pepsi cup portfolio, available at

    Algae Leads the Latest Generation of Bioplastics

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    Algae is the hot new area of bioplastics development according to Pira International. As firms like Cereplast continue to gain cash support from investors, journal Bioplastics World analyses how starch and algae stack up in the fight to become tomorrow's top source for bioplastics.


    In February 2011, DSM announced that it had successfully completed the acquisition of Martek Biosciences. The partners are hoping it will 'accelerate the growth of Martek's product portfolio into other regions, applications and market segments.'


    According to Bioplastics World Editor Dan Rogers 'This could well mean Martek's algal and other microbial-based biotechnology platforms might find their way into the biopackaging arena. But some firms are sticking with starch-based futures.'


    Earlier in February, Teknor Apex launched its new masterbatch for PLA biopackaging applications, quoting advanced impact strengths. So where will the smart money be going over the next 12 months?



    Bioplastics World, a new publication for the bioplastics industry, has investigated this growing segment of the market in its first issue.


    Speaking exclusively with commercial developers of new technology and end users, the journal looks at the likely impact of algae-based technologies in the bioplastics industry, and assesses the challenges to more widespread adoption:


    'Generally algae are used as a fuel source: their composition contains a lot of oil and therefore that can be a positive from that perspective,' says Mark Bunger, lead analyst at Lux Research.


    'In terms of packaging there are people looking at doing this, but there are issues and I'm not aware of companies that haven't encountered issues.


    'Martek were recently bought out by DSM for $1.6 billion (€1.1 billion), and its use for algae operates in the arena of food ingredients, or health supplements, but not at all in the area of biopackaging, as far as I'm aware.'


    According to Bioplastics World, Bunger is unsure as to why companies would want to go down the path of developing packaging from algae. From his perspective, there are many easier ways to make packaging and, given the nature of how algae works, the alternatives are potentially more valuable from a commercial sense.


    'The issue, as with any biomass, is you need to convert the monomer, regardless of its source, whether it is cellulosic or not,' he explains.


    'Now with algae, that conversion first requires cultivation. The cultivation is hard to do as it is cost-intensive; you need lots of water and lots of space; and you also need lots of capital to pump the water.


    'Then the other elements of production are tough too, because the algae is very dilute, so you might achieve 1g of material from 1 litre of water.'


    Such low ratios are compounded by the fact that algae itself is very hardy, requiring crushing to get at the contents, and even then the separation process is intensive. This is needed to reach the point where material similar to ethylene is available.


    This article appears in full in Bioplastics World, and includes comment from the Soley Biotechnology Institute and the CEO and chairman of Cereplast.


    Bioplastics World provides the latest news, exclusive articles and in-depth analysis of the commercialisation of bioplastics.

    Press contact: Rebecca Leigh +44(0)1372 802207 email Rebecca
    Managing Editor: Dan Rogers +44(0)1372 802007 email Dan

    Pira International
    Pira International - the worldwide authority on packaging, paper and print industry supply chains.

    Established in 1930, Pira provides strategic and technical consulting, testing, intelligence and events to help clients gain market insights, identify opportunities, evaluate product performance and manage compliance.



    Danone launches sustainable package for yogurt

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    France-based dairy products maker Danone has launched sustainable Ingeo Activia Yogurt Cup in the German market.


    The new package, which uses 43% less fossil resources compared to the previous packaging, will improve the product's packaging carbon footprint by 25%, Danone said.


    Danone said the new eco-friendly package has been developed in collaboration with WWF-Germany and Ingeo producer NatureWorks.


    The firm said the switch to the technologically innovative material will represent 80% of the total volume of all Activia products in Germany. Danone has plans to expand the use of the Ingeo-based packaging for other products in the Activia line such as drinks, yogurt fruit puree that will account for the remaining 20%.


    NatureWorks has estimated that the Activia pack will result in fossil energy savings equivalent to the electricity consumed per month by 13,000 German homes, along with greenhouse gas savings equivalent to not driving a vehicle 19,000,000 km.



    Bioplastics to pass the one million tonne mark in 2011

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    Capacity is predicted to pass the one million tonne mark already in 2011, according to a current study presented today by the industry association European Bioplastics in cooperation with the University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Hanover at the interpack trade fair in Dusseldorf.

    From a figure of around 700,000 tonnes in 2010, the production capacity for bioplastics will increase to a predicted 1.7 million tonnes by 2015. The current year will see capacity pass an important threshold: the first half of 2011 already shows production capacity exceeding 900,000 tonnes. The million tonne mark is close, and will likely be passed by the bioplastics industry within this year.

    "The encouraging trend in production capacity allows us to assume, that the figures presented today will even be exceeded in the coming years", explains Hasso von Pogrell, Managing Director of European Bioplastics.

    A further change is evident in the composition of global production volume. In 2010, the bio- plastics branch primarily produced biodegradable materials, totalling around 400,000 tonnes (compared to 300,000 tonnes of biobased commodity plastics). This ratio will be reversed in the coming years – despite overall growth.

    “Our market study shows that biobased commo- dity plastics, with a total of around one million tonnes, will make up the majority of production capacity in 2015. Biodegradable materials will, however, also grow substantially and will reach about 700,000 tonnes by then,” explains Professor Dr. (Eng.) Hans-Josef Endres of the Uni- versity of Applied Sciences and Arts of Hanover.

    Essential to this rapid growth is the swift expansion of bioplastics into an ever-increasing number of applications. From packaging to car manufacture to toys, carpets and electronic components – bioplastics are in demand as never before. The strongly growing group of dura- ble biobased bioplastics appeals strongly to the packaging market, for example. Several large brand producers such as Danone and Coca-Cola have brought products to market.



    Molding Compounds with High Bioplastic Content, Impact Strength, and Heat Resistance Open More Uses for PLA

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    FDA-Compliant Terraloy™ BP-34001 Substantially Out-Performs Standard PLA and Yields 28 to 30% Shorter Molding Cycles than Previous ‘Enhanced-Performance’ PLA Resins

    PAWTUCKET, RI, U.S.A., May 9, 2011: New technology developed by Teknor Apex Company has eliminated a property tradeoff that until now has limited use of polylactic acid (PLA) in injection molded semi-durable and durable applications requiring impact strength and heat stability, as well as in high-end disposable food service items such as cutlery, coffee lids, and containers for microwavable products, it was announced today by the company’s Bioplastics Division.

    teknor apex Shown are test samples of Terraloy™ BP-34001 PLA with enhanced thermal properties (bottom sample in photo) and standard PLA (top sample). At 140 ºC, standard PLA exhibits considerable heat distortion while sample from Terraloy compound is largely unaffected.

    Compounding innovations by Teknor Apex have overcome an inverse relationship between heat distortion temperature (HDT) and Izod impact strength in PLA, creating a new series of compounds, Terraloy™ BP-34001, that provide up to two times the HDT and up to six times the impact strength of standard PLA resins. Previous work to enhance PLA performance beyond standard levels had generated resins with either higher HDT or greater impact strength—but not both in the same grade

    In comparison with previous enhanced-performance PLA resins, the new Terraloy compounds also exhibit 28 to 30% shorter cycle times in injection molding and incorporate 10 to 30% more renewable resource-based content. Nearly all of the new Terraloy compounds comply with FDA requirements for food-contact applications.

    “Terraloy BP-34001 Series compounds dramatically improve the heat and impact resistance of PLA while largely retaining the environmental benefit of this polymer as a bioplastic,” said Edwin Tam, manager of new strategic initiatives. “These innovative formulations promise to expand the applicability of PLA, making possible new uses in higher-heat food service items as well as consumer goods.”

    In property tests, a typical grade in the new series, Terraloy BP-34001D, exhibits a heat distortion temperature of 112 ºC and Izod impact strength of 135 J/m. By comparison, approximate values for standard PLA are 65 ºC and 33 J/m. The new compound complies with FDA 21 CFR requirements and has a renewable content of 78%.

    The base polymers for Terraloy BP-34001 products are Ingeo® resins supplied by NatureWorks LLC, noted Gregory J. Anderson, Teknor Apex technical manager. “Teknor Apex built upon research by NatureWorks to develop higher-performance PLA compounds,” Anderson said. “By discovering alternative formulations and compounding techniques, we succeeded in eliminating a chronic property tradeoff between heat resistance and impact resistance, while improving processability and reducing the petrochemical content,” Anderson said.

    Ingeo® is a registered trademark of NatureWorks LLC. For more information about these PLA resins, visit


    Repurpose® Compostables insulated hot cup wins 1st Prize at SCAA and Coffee Fest Chicago.

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    Repurpose® Compostables, a manufacturer of premium, high quality food service products, based in Los Angeles, is pleased to announce today that their exciting new insulated hot cup took top prize at The Specialty Coffee Association of America annual show in Houston as well as the Coffee Fest show in Chicago. The cup won First Prize for most Innovative New Product at Coffee Fest in February and won First Prize for Best New Product in the Sustainability category at SCAA in May.


    The insulated technology behind the Repurpose® insulated hot cup keeps hot beverages warmer for longer, and prevents heat from escaping the cup, protecting the user and creating a more comfortable feel with only one product. No more double cupping. No more sleeves. The revolutionary new cup uses 65% less CO2 than a traditional cup to produce, and can be composted in 90 days. Traditional insulated cups are made by adding additional layers of paper; however, the Repurpose® insulated hot cup does the same with our patented insulation material on a single wall cup. This high quality food service product finally offers the greenest possible alternative to Styrofoam and non-compostable insulated cups.


    “We are thrilled to continue to be recognized by the coffee industry for our new cup,” said Lauren Gropper, Chief Executive Officer of Repurpose Compostables. “This product is not only green and has a sleek design and feel but also performs amazingly well and it is exciting to continue to show that to our community.”


    Repurpose products are made from plants, not petroleum, using Ingeo™ resin and meet ASTM 6400 compostability standards. Founded in 2009, Repurpose®Compostables offers a line of high quality, compostable food service products for businesses and consumers with a focus on premium and innovative products that reinvent the way people look at food service. Repurpose also offers custom products solutions in every category. Our mission is to educate the public about the problems of continuing to use petroleum based plastic products and offer renewable, plant based, compostable alternatives. Additionally, Repurpose works with businesses, municipalities, and individuals to retrofit any traditionally plastic based product with a bioplastic alternative at competitive prices. Find out more



    For more information contact:

    Corey Scholibo

    CMO Repurpose Compostables


    Purac investigates the participation in a multi-purpose Bioprocess Pilot Facility (BPF)

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    Purac is investigating the participation in a multi-purpose Bioprocess Pilot Facility (BPF) in a consortium of a number of industry partners and universities, including DSM and Delft University of Technology.

    This Bioprocess Pilot Facility is planned to be built in Delft, The Netherlands and aimed at scale-up research and education for  next generation bioprocesses. In this facility process development research can be facilitated in the field of biomass pre-processing, biomass pre-treatment, fermentation and down stream processing.

    The Bioprocess Pilot Facility is planned to be funded by Delft University of Technology, other universities, companies, the European Union, The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation, the Province of South Holland and the Municipalities of Rotterdam, Delft and The Hague. The proposed grants will comply with European Union competition rules and procedures, in particular the rules on State aid. The public authorities involved will follow all necessary procedures.


    A bio-fibre designed with Arkema’s Rilsan® Polyamide 11

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    Unitika Fiber, a Japanese fibre and textile manufacturer, has developed a special fibre using our high-performance Rilsan® PA11 polyamide, which is made from renewable materials. This fibre, called Castlon, is designed to meet the textile industry’s growing demand for plant-based materials—without compromising on performance.

    Rilsan® was used by the textile industry on a large scale 50 years ago, but has since shifted into other applications. Today it looks set to make a comeback. Three years ago, Unitika Fiber, a Japanese fibre and textile manufacturer, began developing synthetic fibres for woven fabrics using Arkema’s Rilsan® Polyamide 11. Thanks to joint R&D efforts between Unitika Fiber and Arkema’s Kyoto Technical Center, scientists were able to develop a new, high-tech thread called Castlon.
    Castlon found its first industrial application in March 2009 when it was used in car floor mats. Other applications should soon follow. “Manufacturers of high-performance clothing and sports equipment should be very interested in this fibre” remarks Shigetsugu Kuriiwa, polyamide pellet bio-product applications market manager at Arkema Japan. In October 2009, Unitika Fiber stepped up the development and manufacture of Castlon by opening a new unit at its Okazaki plant, where the group consolidates its production.
    “Naturally” competitive
    Castlon has been successful because it is lightweight, long-lasting, and resistant to stains and shocks. The fibre has all the characteristics that made Rilsan® Polyamide 11 such a hit in other industries. Moreover, Castlon is a plant-based material, making it “naturally” competitive in a market that is concerned about sustainable development.
    Rilsan® Polyamide 11 is made from castor oil, and castor crops—unlike cotton—can be grown without irrigation and in semi-arid climates. In addition, the castor plant does not require intensive use of pesticides, nor does it compete with food crops. Indeed, Unitika Fiber chose the name Castlon as a reference to the fibre’s plant origins. “Unitika Fiber wanted to develop a high-performance fibre made from bioplastics and our Rilsan® PA11 met this need perfectly", explains Shigetsugu Kuriiwa. "Many thanks to the skills of our technical polymer R&D staff, Yoshiyuki Shimonishi, development manager and Sophie Chunn, development engineer for successfully coordinating this effort".

    Cereplast to open bioplastics plant in Italy

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    Bioplastics supplier Cereplast plans to open a major production plant in Assisi, Italy, in late 2012.

    In a 2 May news release, officials with US-based Cereplast said the new plant will open with annual production capacity of about 110 million pounds (50 million kilos), and is expected to double that capacity by the end of 2013.

    “This is a significant step in Cereplast’s evolution,” Chairman and CEO Frederic Scheer said in the release. The new plant will help Cereplast “meet soaring demand for this material in the European market”, he added.

    The plant is expected to create 150 new jobs at the site and at area businesses, officials said. The location was chosen in part because Cereplast generates 85% of its sales from Europe. At present, the firm’s only production plant is in Indiana, the US.

    Cereplast develops and manufactures sustainable plastics based on corn and other materials. Its materials are sold into a variety of processing methods, including injection moulding, thermoforming and blow moulding.

    In 2010, Cereplast posted sales of $6.3m (€4.3m) - more than double its 2009 sales total. But Cereplast also posted a loss of almost $7.5m (€5.1m) for the year, after losing almost $6.1m (€4.1m) in 2009.

    For 2011, Cereplast has set a much higher sales goal of $32m (€21.7m) - more than five times its 2010 result. The firm increased its expectation from $28m (€18.9m) to $32m (€21.7m) after recording sales of just over $7m in the first quarter.



    What is PHA

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    Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. They are produced by the bacteria to store carbon and energy. More than 150 different monomers can be combined within this family to give materials with extremely different properties.[1] These plastics are biodegradeable and are used in the production of bioplastics.
    They can be either thermoplastic or elastomeric materials, with melting points ranging from 40 to 180 °C.
    The mechanical and biocompatibility of PHA can also be changed by blending, modifying the surface or combining PHA with other polymers, enzymes and inorganic materials, making it possible for a wider range of applications.


    To produce PHA, a culture of a micro-organism such as Alcaligenes eutrophus is placed in a suitable medium and fed appropriate nutrients so that it multiplies rapidly. Once the population has reached a substantial level, the nutrient composition is changed to force the micro-organism to synthesize PHA. The yield of PHA obtained from the intracellular inclusions can be as high as 80% of the organism's dry weight.
    The biosynthesis of PHA is usually caused by certain deficiency conditions (e.g. lack of macro elements such as phosphorus, nitrogen, trace elements, or lack of oxygen) and the excess supply of carbon sources.
    Polyesters are deposited in the form of highly refractive granules in the cells. Depending upon the microorganism and the cultivation conditions, homo- or copolyesters with different hydroxyalkanic acids are generated. PHAs granules are then recovered by disrupting the cells [3]
    Recombinants Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1 and Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1AB were used in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and it was shown that they could use malt waste as carbon source for lower cost of PHA production.
    PHA synthases are the key enzymes of PHA biosynthesis. They use the coenzyme A - thioester of (r)-hydroxy fatty acids as substrates. The two classes of PHA synthases differ in the specific use of hydroxyfattyacids of short or medium chain length.
    The resulting PHA is of the two types:
    • Poly (HA SCL) from hydroxy fatty acids with short chain lengths including three to five carbon atoms are synthesized by numerous bacteria, including Ralstonia eutropha and Alcaligenes latus (PHB).
    • Poly (HA MCL) from hydroxy fatty acids with middle chain lengths including six to 14 carbon atoms, can be made for example, by Pseudomonas putida.
    A few bacteria, including Aeromonas hydrophila and Thiococcus pfennigii, synthesize copolyester, from the above two types of hydroxy fatty acids or at least possess enzymes that are part of this building are capable of.
    Another even large scale synthesis can be done with the help of soil organisms. For lack of nitrogen and phosphorus they produce from three kilograms of sugar a kilogram of PHA.

    The simplest and most commonly occurring form of PHA is the fermentative production of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate) (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, P3HB), which consists of 1000 to 30000 hydroxy fatty acid monomers.

    [edit] Industrial production

    In the industrial production of PHA, the polyester is extracted and purified from the bacteria by optimizing the conditions of microbial fermentation of sugar or glucose.
    The British chemical company Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), developed in the 1980s years fermentatively created copolyester produced from 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-Hydroxyvalerianacid. It was sold under the name "Biopol." It was distributed in the U.S. from the company Monsanto and Metabolix and has been further developed by them.
    As raw material for the fermentation, carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose can be used, but also vegetable oil or glycerine from biodiesel production. Researchers in industry are working on methods with which transgenic crops will be developed that express PHA synthesis routes from bacteria and so produce PHA as energy storage in their tissues. Another group of researchers at Micromidas Inc. is working to develop methods of producing PHA from municipal waste water.
    PHAs are processed mainly via injection molding, extrusion and extrusion bubbles into films and hollow bodies.
    Some PHA producers include:
    • Metabolix, US
    • Greenbio, Tianjin, China
    • PHB Industrial SA, or Biocycle, Brazil
    • Tianan Biologic Material Co, Ltd Ningbo, China
    • Biomer
    • Bio-on

    Material properties

    PHA polymers are thermoplastic, can be processed on conventional processing equipment, and are, depending on their composition, ductile and more or less elastic. They differ in their properties according to their chemical composition (homo-or copolyester, contained hydroxy fatty acids).
    They are UV stable, in contrast to other bioplastics from polymers such as polylactic acid, partial ca. temperatures up to 180 ° C, [1] and show a low permeation of water.
    The crystallinity can lie in the range of a few to 70%.
    Processability, impact strength and flexibility improves with a higher percentage of valerate in the material.
    PHB is similar in its material properties to polypropylene (PP), has a good resistance to moisture and aroma barrier properties.
    Polyhydroxybutyric acid synthesized from pure PHB is relatively brittle and stiff. PHB copolymers, which may include other fatty acids such as beta-hydroxyvaleriate acid, may be elastic.


    A PHA copolymer called PHBV (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)) is less stiff and tougher, and it may be used as packaging material.
    In June 2005, a US company (Metabolix, Inc.) received the US Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award (small business category) for their development and commercialisation of a cost-effective method for manufacturing PHAs.
    There are potential applications for PHA produced by micro-organisms[4] within the medical and pharmaceutical industries, primarily due to their biodegradability.
    Fixation and orthopaedic applications have included sutures, suture fasteners, meniscus repair devices, rivets, tacks, staples, screws (including interference screws), bone plates and bone plating systems, surgical mesh, repair patches, slings, cardiovascular patches, orthopedic pins (including bone.lling augmentation material), adhesion barriers, stents, guided tissue repair/regeneration devices, articular cartilage repair devices, nerve guides, tendon repair devices, atrial septal defect repair devices, pericardial patches, bulking and filling agents, vein valves, bone marrow scaffolds, meniscus regeneration devices, ligament and tendon grafts, ocular cell implants, spinal fusion cages, skin substitutes, dural substitutes, bone graft substitutes, bone dowels, wound dressings, and hemostats.

    From Wikipedia

    Cologne Carnival serves up one million Ingeo bioplastic-based BioWare drink cups

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    Organizers of the Cologne Carnival, one of the oldest street carnivals in Europe, focused both on safety by eliminating glass cold-drink cups and being kinder to the environment by using Huhtamaki BioWare® plastic drinking cups, made from Ingeo™ bioplastic, which comes from plants, not oil. More than one million of the Huhtamaki cups were used during this year’s carnival, held in March.

    "The plastic resin that goes into the innovative drinking cups emits fewer greenhouse gas emissions and requires less energy to produce than the petroleum-based plastics used in traditional plastic drinking cups," said Markus Rittersbach, Chairman of the Cologne Carnival Festival Committee. "This is the second year for BioWare cups at the Cologne Carnival, and we hope to use them at the carnival for many years to come as they are safe, hygienic, and spare the environment."

    "The publicity gained from the 2009 UN Conference on Climate Change in Copenhagen, where 285,000 BioWare cups and 12,000 deli containers were used by foodservice organizations, and the long-term trend of improving safety by the elimination of glass and lowering the environmental impact of large events, like the Cologne Carnival, contributes to the growing popularity of our plant-based foodservice items," said Andreas Hees, European account manager of Huhtamaki.

    All BioWare products are certified in accordance with EN13432, the European standard for compostability of packaging, and all have a lower environmental impact than their traditional counterparts. For more information on Huhtamaki, visit For information on Ingeo bioresin manufactured by NatureWorks, visit

    About Huhtamaki
    Huhtamaki Group is a leading manufacturer of consumer and specialty packaging with 2009 net sales totalling EUR 2 billion. Foodservice and consumer goods markets are served by approximately 13,000 people in 54 manufacturing units and several sales offices in 33 countries. The parent company, Huhtamäki Oyj, has its head office in Espoo, Finland and its share is quoted on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki Ltd. Additional information is available at
    BioWare® is Huhtamaki's complete range of high quality single-use foodservice products that have their origin in pure nature; primarily made of renewable plant materials like Ingeo. All BioWare products are also totally compostable. The entire chain, from raw material input to production and disposal, has been designed to have a minimal impact on the environment.

    About NatureWorks LLC
    NatureWorks LLC is a company dedicated to meeting the world’s needs today without compromising the earth’s ability to meet the needs of tomorrow.  NatureWorks LLC is the first company to offer a family of commercially available low carbon footprint Ingeo™ biopolymers derived from 100 percent annually renewable resources with performance and economics that compete with oil-based plastics and fibers.